- Evangelion 1.0: You Are (Not) Alone
- Evangelion 2.0: You Can (Not) Advance
- Evangelion 3.0: You Can (Not) Redo
- Evangelion 4.0: You Will (Not) Happen
Alternative facts are (not) fun!
Alternative facts are (not) fun!
Kenneth Burke wrote about the Four Master Tropes of “figurative” or “poetic” rhetoric: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. He also proposed “literal” or “realistic” versions, respectively: perspective, reduction, representation, and dialectic, and expounded on the correspondence.
Giambattista Vico, who wrote “The New Science”, is usually credited with initially listing these four tropes, but he may have had inspiration from others. Hayden White, who wrote “Metahistory”, was inspired by Burke’s Tropes and proposed that it formed a syncretism with other fourfolds such as political ideologies, Pepper’s world views, and Frye’s literary emplotments.
Frank J. D’Angelo / The Four Master Tropes: Analogues of Development, Rhetoric Review, Vol. 11, No. 1. (Autumn, 1992), pp. 91-107.
Kenneth Burke / Four Master Tropes, The Kenyon Review Vol 3, No 4 (1941) pp. 421-438
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As conservative capitalism whips itself into an ecstasy of fevered apoplexy over the change in political climate, it is fun to step back and imagine what might transpire after capitalism’s eventual passing. To offer help, Peter Frase has written the excellent and cautionary “Four Futures: life after capitalism”.
Frase gives us four idealized futures blocked out by a matrix of two variables each ranging over two possibilities: 1) the structure of the social environment being either egalitarian or hierarchical, and 2) the resources of the natural environment being either scarce or abundant. What’s nice about the descriptions of these futures are the ample examples from science fiction media: TV, movies, novels, etc.
One assumption over all four futures is that, given sufficient resources of material and energy, technology, automation, and robotics will improve to the extent that human work as we know it will eventually be made unnecessary. Another is that climate change is real and will demand solutions and amelioration or it will only get much worse. And a big take home message is that the rich and powerful are in a much better position to benefit from ignoring climate change than you and me.
What will happen to the common person when their labor is superfluous? Not detailed are the possibilities if even the humans at the top are deemed unnecessary and the machines revolt. In order of diminishing happiness for most of us:
The cover has a nice iconography for the futures: a conveyor belt on a 3D printer assembly line shows a glass of wine for Communism (Cheers!), a key hole for Rentism, a watering can for Socialism, and a skull for Exterminism (Ouch!).
Peter Frase / Four Futures: life after capitalism
Some better reviews than mine:
There’s a similar fourfold of futures I forgot I mentioned in my article on Trompenaars, although fragmentation-coherence is used instead of scarcity-abundance, and there is a more positive spin:
Also, Frase has a blog that can be found at:
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Looking at various lists of analogies of the A:B::C:D motif, I have distilled them into four groups: Relational, Hierarchical, Linguistical, and Mathematical. Are there analogies that don’t fit this scheme?
Object / characteristic
Agent / object, action
Cause / effect
Source / product
Classification, category, type, membership
Whole / part
General / specific
Contrast, degree, intensity
George Lakoff, Mark Johnson / Metaphors We Live By
Douglas Hofstadter, Emmanuel Sander / Surfaces and Essences: analogy as the fuel and fire of thinking, Basic Books (2013)
Noah Roderick / The Being of Analogy, Open Humanities Press (2016)
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