Archive for the ‘fourfolds’ Category

The Who, What, Where, When, Why, and How of Everything

November 6, 2017

I’ve mentioned several times the fourfold of Who, What, Why, and How, mostly because I perceive an association between it and Aristotle’s Four Causes: Who for Efficient Cause, What for Material Cause, Why for Final Cause, and How for Formal Cause.

Two other “W”’s, Where and When, weren’t mentioned because they add two more to the four, and don’t fit into the Four Causes anyway.

But evidently they are mentioned often with the first four, as the several links below indicate. These six questions are used in elementary education and even beginning journalism to elicit six answers. They also form three pairs as follows:

  • Who – What
  • Where – When
  • How – Why

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Ws

http://seliger.com/2008/07/21/every-proposal-needs-six-elements-who-what-where-when-why-and-how-the-rest-is-mere-commentary/

https://www.webhostingsecretrevealed.net/blog/web-copy-writing/the-who-what-where-when-and-why-of-excellent-blog-writing/

Other Images:

https://www.google.com/search?q=who+what+how+why+where+when&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjwmt31zqDXAhUozoMKHS-AAbwQ_AUICigB&biw=1700&bih=906

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Richard McKeon’s Aspects of Knowing, Part 2, V3

October 10, 2017

The duals in Richard McKeon’s system of Philosophical Semantics can also be arranged in a three-dimensional tetrahedron, where the dual pairs are on opposing edges. The universal and particular methods, the phenomenal and ontic interpretations, and the meroscopic and holoscopic principles are shown above.

Universal methods, between knower and knowledge, are applicable to all problems and all subject matters. Particular methods, between the knowable and the known, require distinct methodological procedures for different problems or subject matters.

Holoscopic principles, looking at the parts from the perspective of the whole, provide a coincidence of knowledge and known. Meroscopic principles, looking at the whole from the perspective of the parts, separate the knower and the knowable from each other and from influence between each other.

Ontic interpretations, between the knowable and knowledge, derive their character from a reality assumed to transcend or to underlie phenomena and statements. Phenomenal interpretations, between knower and the known, may reduce reality and values to aspects or consequences of phenomena.

Alternatively, the four vertices of  knower, knowledge, known, and knowable can be labeled by their method, principle, and interpretation as shown at right.

Further Reading:

http://www.richardmckeon.org/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_McKeon

Notes:

As McKeon said in his lecture of  October 23, 1972 (the “Topics course”, unpublished): “You can either look at things from the point of view of the whole — then the principles are holoscopic (holos means whole, skopein means to look). Or, you can take the same set of facts, and view them from the part: then you have meroscopic principles. (Meros means part, skopein still means to look at).”

[*6.136]

The Duality of Time and Information, V3

October 1, 2017

 

The states of a computing system bear information and change time, while its events bear time and change information.

from The Duality of Time and Information by Vaughn Pratt

The most promising transformational logic seems to us to be Girard’s linear logic.

— from Rational Mechanics and Natural Mathematics by Vaughn Pratt

 

Here we have three duals:

  • Information – Time
  • States – Events
  • Bear – Change

Further Reading:

Vaughan Pratt / The Duality of Time and Information http://boole.stanford.edu/pub/dti.pdf

Vaughan Pratt / Time and Information in Sequential and Concurrent Computation http://boole.stanford.edu/pub/tppp.pdf

Vaughan Pratt / Rational Mechanics and Natural Mathematics http://chu.stanford.edu/guide.html#ratmech

[*5.170]

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The Philosopher’s Wheel

September 24, 2017

Eric A. Meece’s web site philosopherswheel.com has been in existence for a while, and it claims there is a forthcoming book called “The Philosopher’s Wheel”. This seems like an interesting project and it’s a shame that the book is still “in process”.

Meece has certainly been working on these ideas for few years. Starting with a Master’s thesis in 1979, and a presentation in 2001, he also has a collection of articles available to the reader that are related to his theme.

The philosopher’s wheel is essentially composed of three polarities:

  • Materialism vs. Spiritualism
  • Rationalism vs. Empiricism
  • Essentialism vs. Existentialism

Two polarities are related to Jung’s Psychological Types:

  • Rationalism (Thinking)
  • Empiricism (Sensing)
  • Existentialism (Feeling)
  • Essentialism (Intuiting)

I’ve tried to represent these dualities a little differently than Meece. Note in the above diagram that Materialism mediates Rationalism and Empiricism, and Spiritualism mediates Essentialism and Existentialism, similar to the wheel representation.

At right is an attempt at eliminating the “isms”. Perhaps I should have read some more of his writings before making these efforts.

Further Reading:

http://philosopherswheel.com/

http://philosopherswheel.com/philosophycircle.htm

Notes:

The more I think about it, the more I like to compare this with

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2017/09/09/simon-magus-and-the-six-roots-of-boundless-power/

Images of the Philosopher’s Wheel:

https://www.google.com/search?q=philosopher%27s+wheel&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiN8MLK1L3WAhXG0SYKHYnsA3IQ_AUICygC&biw=1614&bih=886

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Cassini

September 15, 2017

“Thanks, and farewell, faithful explorer.”

— Cassini program manager Earl Maize

Today, Cassini’s impetus succumbed to Saturn’s gravity.

Further Reading:

https://www.google.com/amp/amp.usatoday.com/story/667937001/

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The Tetramorph

September 15, 2017

I’ve felt a fondness for the Tetramorph for a long time. Four beings considered simultaneously: a man, an ox, a lion, an eagle.

They are the Babylonian symbols of the four fixed signs of the zodiac: ox or bull for Taurus (and earth), lion for Leo (and fire), eagle for Scorpio (and water), man for Aquarius (and air).

They can be thought of as representing the ancient four elements: earth, fire, water, and air.

They are mentioned in the Judeo-Christian Bible in the books of Ezekiel and Revelation. They have also been paired with the four evangelists and their books: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (although the pairing is not fixed).

They are shown on the Tarot card for the “Wheel of Fortune” in the Rider-Waite deck, and the card for the “World” in the Tarot of Marseilles.

Why these four creatures, and not others?

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetramorph

The Tetramorph; The Sumerian Origins of a Christian Symbol

http://occultum.net/the-sacred-tetramorph/

http://eden-saga.com/en/under-the-sign-of-tetramorph.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrology_and_the_classical_elements#Elements_of_the_zodiac

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-tetramorph-and-more/

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Simon Magus and the Six Roots of Boundless Power

September 9, 2017

Through the darkness of future’s past,
The magician longs to see.
One chants out between two worlds…
“Fire… walk with me.”

— Mike from Twin Peaks

As we had a taste of Christian Eschatology last time we now nibble on Christian Gnosticism. Simon was mentioned in the bible and in apocryphal works was purported to be a sorcerer of some renown. He developed a philosophically idealistic system wherein six roots of mental aspects issue from a fundamental principle of “Fire”:

  • Mind (Heaven)
  • Voice (Sun)
  • Reason (Air)
  • Reflection (Water)
  • Name (Moon)
  • Thought (Earth)

These six roots form three pairs:

  • Mind [Nous] – Thought [Epinoia]
  • Voice [Phone] – Name [Onoma]
  • Reason [Logismos] – Reflection [Enthumesis]

Above is a representation of these six roots forming their three pairs or syzygies. Most of Simon’s teachings have been either been lost or perhaps even degraded from their original meaning. Do I waste both my time as well as yours to perpetuate this esoteric nonsense? Or is there some merit in it, if only for idle amusement?

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Magus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simonians

https://hermetic.com/sabazius/simon

http://gnosis.org/library/grs-mead/grsm_simon_magus.htm

http://www.katinkahesselink.net/his/Simon-Magnus.html

http://www.sacred-texts.com/gno/fff/fff21.htm

G. R. S. (George Robert Stow) Mead / Simon Magus: His Philosophy and Teachings

Notes:

Sometimes Mind is called Reason, and then Reason is called Judgment.

Greek philosopher Heraclitus also thought that fire was the fundamental element.

http://www.heraclitusfragments.com/categories/fire.html

Simon was thought to have written the book “The Four Quarters of the World”, now lost to us. Perhaps it was in the Library of Alexandria?

Perhaps Mike’s spell from “Twin Peaks” is inspired by Simon Magus? See

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2017/09/04/twins-peaks/

Compare the six roots to de Bono’s six thinking hats:

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2017/02/20/the-six-thinking-hats-of-edward-de-bono/

[*9.222, *9.223]

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The Four Last Things

September 6, 2017

Over the years, there has been much religious consideration of the four last things in Christian Eschatology. They are

  • Death
  • Judgment
  • Heaven
  • Hell

Many books have been written and many paintings have been painted. In my project to present every fourth thing, I imagine I’ll come to them eventually, but why wait until then? Or maybe I’m thinking of the “Last Four Things”.

Actually, I’d much rather play the video game on my Mac, because it looks like a lot more fun. Plus it uses classical music for a background soundtrack and images from Hieronymus Bosch’s paintings, such as the Garden of Earthly Delights. When will the Mac version be available? Anyone?

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_last_things

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_eschatology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Last_Things_(video_game)

http://joemcrichardson.com/fourlastthings/presskit.html

Robert Southwell / A Four-fold Meditation of the Four Last Things

[*10.32]

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I Dare You!

September 6, 2017

In 1931, William H. Danforth published the book “I Dare You! Four fold development: stand tall, think tall, smile tall, and live tall.” Perhaps he is better remembered as the founder of the Ralston Purina Company, maker of many fine products and particularly of Chex Cereals. Indeed, Danforth saw life as a type of checkerboard, such that four key components (or “squares”) – the mental, the physical, the social, and the religious – needed to be in balance in order to achieve fulfillment and success in life.

His book was the expression of his personal philosophy of “Four-square” personal development, and was a early example of the “self-help” style of book that has become so popular. Success! Fulfillment! So much can become yours if you take chances and work hard. If only life was that simple! His four aspects of personal development are

  • Physical: Stand Tall!
  • Mental: Think Tall!
  • Social: Smile Tall!
  • Spiritual: Live Tall!

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Danforth

William H. Danforth / I Dare You! Only $1 in Kindle format from Amazon! Worth every penny! Don’t delay, buy today!

[*10.31]

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Twin Peaks

September 4, 2017

Through the darkness of future’s past,
The magician longs to see.
One chants out between two worlds…
“Fire… walk with me.”

— Mike from Twin Peaks

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